The emergence of militancy came from the recognition that non-militant methods had failed either to deliver a successful suffrage bill or to push suffrage up the political agenda. Militancy was not, however, a uniform concept and its implementation varied more than is often recognised. The WSPU continued to use non-militant activities and electoral politics to achieve their aims.
|Non-militant tactics|| |
Though better known for their militant actions, the WSPU continued to use a range of innovative non-militant tactics to draw attention to their cause:
|WSPU and ILP|| |
At first, the WSPU devoted much attention to interventions in by-elections where they urged electors to vote against the Liberal candidate (whether they supported women’s suffrage or not). This had significant propaganda value and allowed the Pankhursts to claim credit when the government lost a seat though whether women’s suffrage was a major or contributory factor is a matter of some debate.